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Limb Discrepancy

Limb discrepancy refers to a condition in which there is an inequality in the length of the limbs (arms or legs). It can occur due to various factors, including growth disturbances, trauma, infections, or congenital abnormalities. 

Here are some key points about limb discrepancy:

Types of limb discrepancy:

There are two main types of limb discrepancy: true limb discrepancy and functional limb discrepancy. True limb discrepancy occurs when there is an actual difference in the length of the bones in the limbs. Functional limb discrepancy, on the other hand, is when the apparent difference in limb length is caused by factors like muscle contractures or joint stiffness rather than bone length.


Limb discrepancy can have various causes. It can be congenital, meaning it is present at birth, or it can develop later in life due to factors such as growth plate abnormalities, bone fractures, infections, or conditions like Blount’s disease or neurofibromatosis.

Measurement and evaluation:

To determine the extent of limb discrepancy, healthcare professionals typically use radiographic imaging techniques like X-rays or scans. These imaging methods provide accurate measurements of bone length and help determine the appropriate treatment approach.


The treatment of limb discrepancy depends on several factors, including the cause, severity, age of the individual, and their functional needs. Non-surgical interventions may include physical therapy to improve muscle strength and flexibility, shoe lifts or orthotic devices to equalize limb length, or bracing to correct alignment. In more severe cases or when conservative measures are ineffective, surgical options such as limb lengthening or shortening procedures may be considered.

Daily Life Effects Of Limb Discrepancy

Limb discrepancy can have several effects on daily life, including:

Gait abnormalities:

Limb discrepancy can result in an uneven gait, causing difficulties with walking and balance. This may lead to a noticeable limp or an altered pattern of movement.

Postural changes

: To compensate for limb length differences, individuals with limb discrepancy may develop compensatory postures. These postural changes can affect overall body alignment and may lead to issues such as back pain or postural imbalances.

Activity limitations

: Depending on the severity of the limb discrepancy, certain activities or movements may be challenging or restricted. This can impact daily activities such as walking long distances, participating in sports, or performing specific tasks that require balance or coordination.

Clothing and footwear considerations:

Individuals with limb discrepancy may need to make adjustments in their clothing choices and footwear. They may require modifications such as shoe lifts, orthotic inserts, or custom-made shoes to compensate for the difference in limb length.

Limb Discrepancy Correction With Limb Lengthening Surgery

Limb lengthening is a surgical procedure that can be used to correct limb discrepancy by increasing the length of the shorter limb. It is typically performed on the long bones of the lower limbs, such as the femur (thigh bone) or tibia (shin bone). 

Here’s how limb lengthening can help correct limb discrepancy:

Preoperative planning

: Before the surgery, a thorough evaluation is conducted to assess the limb discrepancy and determine the appropriate treatment plan. This may involve radiographic imaging, measurements, and a comprehensive examination of the affected limb.

Surgical procedure

: Limb lengthening surgery is typically performed under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes one or more incisions near the bone to gain access to the site of lengthening. Different techniques can be used, including external fixators (such as the Ilizarov or Taylor Spatial Frame) or internal devices like nails or rods. The choice of technique depends on various factors, including the location and severity of the limb discrepancy.


: An osteotomy, which is the surgical cutting of the bone, is performed at the desired location. This allows the bone to be gradually separated and create a gap that will be filled during the lengthening process.

Gradual lengthening

: After the osteotomy, an external fixator or internal device is applied to stabilize the bone and facilitate the lengthening process. In external fixators, thin wires or pins are inserted into the bone on either side of the osteotomy, and an external frame is attached to provide controlled distraction and stabilization. With internal devices, the lengthening mechanism is contained within the bone and not visible externally.

Consolidation and bone healing

: Once the desired length is achieved, a period of consolidation begins. The bone gradually heals and solidifies in the new lengthened position. This consolidation phase typically lasts several months, during which weight-bearing is gradually introduced under the guidance of the medical team.

Rehabilitation and physical therapy:

After the bone has consolidated, a period of rehabilitation and physical therapy follows to help restore strength, flexibility, and function. Physical therapy may involve exercises, stretching, and activities to promote optimal recovery and functional outcomes.

Follow-up care:

Regular follow-up visits are necessary to monitor healing, assess progress, and address any complications or concerns that may arise.

Bow Legs

Bow legs, also known as genu varum, is a condition in which the legs have an outward curvature, causing the knees to be spaced apart while the ankles are close together when standing with the feet together. Bow legs are commonly seen in infants and toddlers as a normal part of their development, but they usually resolve as the child grows. However, in some cases, bow legs may persist or develop later in life, leading to potential functional and cosmetic concerns.

There are several causes and contributing factors to bow legs, including:

Physiological bow legs:

In infants and toddlers, bow legs are often a normal part of growth and development. As the child begins to walk and bear weight on their legs, the bones gradually straighten out, and the legs become aligned. This type of bow legs typically corrects itself without any intervention.


Rickets is a bone disorder characterized by a deficiency in vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate, which leads to weakened and soft bones. Rickets can cause bow legs as the weight-bearing bones fail to properly mineralize and support the body’s weight.

Blount’s disease

: Blount’s disease is a growth disorder that affects the tibia (shin bone). It results in abnormal growth of the inner side of the bone, leading to bowing of the legs. It is more commonly seen in children and adolescents and may require medical intervention.

Genetic or hereditary factors:

Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to bow legs, where the bones naturally develop with an outward curvature.


Excessive weight can contribute to the development or worsening of bow legs due to the increased stress on the lower limbs.

The treatment for bow legs depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In cases where bow legs are physiological or mild, no treatment may be necessary, as the legs often straighten out naturally over time. However, if the bow legs persist or are causing functional difficulties, medical intervention may be recommended. 

Physical therapy:

Physical therapy may be prescribed to address muscle imbalances, improve range of motion, strengthen muscles, and correct alignment.


In some cases, bracing or orthotic devices may be used to support proper leg alignment and encourage straightening of the bones.

Surgical intervention:

Severe or progressive bow legs may require surgical correction. Surgical procedures aim to realign the bones and correct the underlying issues contributing to the bow legs.

Knock Knees

Knock knees, medically known as genu valgum, is a condition in which the knees angle inward and touch each other while the ankles remain apart when standing with the feet together. 


Knock knees result in an inward angulation of the lower legs, causing the knees to touch or come close to each other while the ankles are apart. This gives the appearance of a gap between the feet when standing.


Knock knees can be either physiological or pathological. Physiological knock knees are common in young children as part of normal growth and development. The legs gradually straighten out as the child grows. Pathological knock knees may be caused by underlying factors such as bone deformities, growth plate abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, or certain medical conditions.


Knock knees usually become more pronounced during early childhood and tend to reach their maximum severity by around 4-6 years of age. As the child grows, the legs gradually straighten out, and the alignment improves. In some cases, knock knees may persist into adulthood if there are underlying skeletal abnormalities or other contributing factors.


Mild knock knees may not cause any symptoms or functional limitations. However, more severe cases can lead to problems such as an abnormal gait, balance issues, knee pain, joint stiffness, and increased stress on the inner knee structures.


A physical examination by a healthcare professional is typically sufficient to diagnose knock knees. Measurements of the distance between the knees and ankles may be taken to assess the severity of the condition. In some cases, X-rays or other imaging studies may be performed to evaluate the underlying bone structure.


Treatment for knock knees depends on the underlying cause, severity of the condition, age, and functional limitations. In most cases, physiological knock knees in children do not require treatment, as they tend to correct themselves with growth. Observation and regular follow-up may be recommended. For pathological or persistent knock knees causing functional problems, treatment options may include physical therapy to strengthen the surrounding muscles, orthotic devices to provide support, weight management for obese individuals, or in rare cases, surgery to correct the alignment.